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Childless Feminine’s Relationships that have College students regarding Anybody else: Narratives out of A few Years in Lithuania

Childless Feminine’s Relationships that have College students regarding Anybody else: Narratives out of A few Years in Lithuania

  • The original sorts of this section is actually changed: The section try inadvertently blogged excluding an enthusiastic Acknowledgement which was extra now. New correction compared to that part is present at the


Good childless lady who lives in a people having pronatalist thinking is going to be during the a vulnerable status. Inside 2006, singular.9% out of Lithuanians shown confident perceptions regarding the childlessness, and you may 84.6% respected they adversely (Stakuniene and Maslauskaite 2008), signalling the newest pronatalist desire from Lithuanian area. not, specific studies show a move from traditional so you can so much more individualistic familial perceptions (Kanopiene mais aussi al. 2015). This section looks at the connection between childless feminine away from two generations inside the Lithuania in addition to pupils of these ladies members of the family otherwise loved ones. The study lies in forty partial-prepared qualitative interviews presented for the 2017–2018 with unmarried and you will coupled female within ages of twenty-eight and 71 who will be willingly and you may involuntarily childless. The women from reproductive decades was indeed provided its plans to has or not have students later, and lots of were going through infertility providers; female over fifty shown towards the long lasting childlessness. Every interviewed female was basically involved in handling the siblings’ otherwise romantic relatives’ college students during the a period of time within lifetime, and perhaps, such feminine became replacement parents. Not all feminine stated that they avoided exposure to youngsters in their private lifetime.


  • Childless and you can childfree feminine
  • Relationship with children
  • Qualitative strategy
  • Lithuania


Pronatalism, records and you will perceptions that prompt procreation, is actually a prevailing feature for the majority communities. Pronatalism are prevalent sufficient this would-be presented as ‘some values therefore inserted they’ve started to be seen just like the true’, and has now a certain impact on feminine: ‘a cardinal properties within the pronatalist consider is the conjecture you to definitely good woman’s character must encompass maternity’ (Carrol 2012 into the Venkatesan and you may Murali 2019, 2). While the ladies public identities try strongly related to motherhood, childless ladies are commonly perceived as ‘others’ during the pronatalist communities (Venkatesan and Murali 2019). Melissa Graham et al. (2013) make reference to a number of research studies for the Western societies that concur that women in place of pupils will always be stigmatized, negatively stereotyped plus socially excluded.

Pronatalist perceptions you to form the infant-centered discourse are commonplace within the societies that have reasonable virility rates. Lithuania has received a virility decline once the 1991, that have modest activity lower than society replacement for membership, in addition to nation shines about Western european framework featuring its smaller great attitude away from childlessness. Within the 2006 only 1.9% off Lithuanians expressed confident perceptions on childlessness, if you’re 84.6% appreciated they adversely (Stakuniene and you will Maslauskaite 2008). With other East European countries (Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Slovakia, and Ukraine), Lithuanians share more traditional nearest and dearest norms and less acceptance from voluntary childlessness. Having said that, Eu countries (Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, Cyprus, Germany, Denmark, Ireland, the netherlands, Norway, A holiday in greece and Sweden), leaders regarding 2nd Group Transition, value autonomy, emancipation and you can adaptation, and they values are related to a higher recognition out of voluntary childlessness (Stakuniene and you may Maslauskaite 2008; Merz and Liefbroer 2012). Less greeting of various existence programs inside the Lithuania creates a social framework in which, even after much more individualistic attitudes, the latest narratives out of stigmatization and social difference nonetheless would be thought. A good qualitative relative examination of enjoy of childlessness into the Lithuania and you can Poland reveals how the prominent societal discourse causes emotions of exception out of specific public circles (functions and you can religious teams, friends) and induces a feeling of otherness (Gedvilaite-Kordusiene et al. 2020).

We utilize the rules out-of ‘childlessness’ and you may ‘childfreeness’ as the synonyms about text, each other talking about the absence of physical children. Even if the label childfree does not secure the connotation regarding run out of, within the phrase childless (Gibb 2019), certain article writers acknowledge one those two terms and conditions could be understood as bad regarding the social commentary: ‘childless’ means those people who are struggling to replicate and you will, and this, are believed ‘incomplete’, ‘maybe not whole’, that have ‘something missing’; whereas ‘childfree’ feminine possibly was framed once the ‘selfish’ and you may ‘crazy’ for selecting not to have pupils (Venkatesan and you can Murali 2019, 14–15). Inspite of the sexist and you may misogynous overtones of those expressions, we have decided to use them to spell it out the women for the our studies; people that demonstrated the experience out of childlessness with regards to ‘things missing’ otherwise stated that it would be nice getting children are referred as the childless regarding text. ‘Childfree’ is used so you’re able to establish ladies who expressed a working choice to not have students at present of one’s interview and you can afterwards. We use the identity ‘childfree attitudes’ to explain ladies’ ranks on childbirth whenever female expected the importance of pupils in their lives. Some ladies in our sample haven’t made productive choices to stand childfree in their reproductive lives; not, its narratives shown childfree ranking, and this we consider since ‘childfree attitudes’.

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